sociology optional syllabus

Sociology optional syllabus

Sociology optional syllabus 2020: Sociology section plays a very vital role as an optional subject in the examination of civil service. The candidates who are preparing for the UPSC exams and planning to choose sociology optional subject for upsc, then here we will cover the detailed syllabus of sociology optional for the upsc candidates according to the official syllabus of the UPSC.

As we have mentioned below paper I of sociology cover the fundamentals of sociology and the paper II of sociology cover Introducing Indian Society, Social Structure and Social Changes in India. The detailed syllabus of sociology helps the students in their preparation strategy. 

Sociology optional syllabus for upsc 2020

As a general sociology subject is one of the useful subjects from society point of view, it helps the students to learn about the society and also understand the way society runs.

Sociology is one of the interesting subjects and it also helps to gain a score. The students are seeking to learn more about their society and interested to know more than sociology subjects will be the one of the best choices.

Geography optional syllabus for upsc

Sociology optional syllabus for UPSC Paper I


  1. Sociology – The Discipline
  2. Sociology as Science
  3. Research Methods and Analysis
  4. Sociological Thinkers
  5. Stratification and Mobility
  6. Works and Economic Life
  7. Politics and Society
  8. Religion and Society
  9. Systems of Kinship
  10. Social Change in Modern Society


  1. Sociology – The Discipline
  1. Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology.
  2. Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
  3. Sociology and common sense.
  1. Sociology as Science:
  1. Science, scientific method and critique.
  2. Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
  3. Positivism and its critique.
  4. Fact value and objectivity.
  5. Non- positivist methodologies.
  1. Research Methods and Analysis:
  1. Qualitative and quantitative methods.
  2. Techniques of data collection.
  3. Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.
  1. Sociological Thinkers:
  1. Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
  2. Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
  3. Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
  4. Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables.
  5. Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups.
  6. Mead – Self and identity.
  1. Stratification and Mobility:
  1. Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.
  2. Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
  3. Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
  4. Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.
  1. Works and Economic Life:
  1. Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist society.
  2. Formal and informal organization of work.
  3. Labour and society.
  1. Politics and Society:
  1. Sociological theories of power.
  2. Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.
  3. Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
  4. Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
  1. Religion and Society:
  1. Sociological theories of religion.
  2. Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
  3. Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.
  1. Systems of Kinship:
  1. Family, household, marriage.
  2. Types and forms of family.
  3. Lineage and descent.
  4. Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.
  5. Contemporary trends.
  1. Social Change in Modern Society:
  1. Sociological theories of social change.
  2. Development and dependency.
  3. Agents of social change.
  4. Education and social change.
  5. Science, technology and social change.

Sociology optional syllabus Paper II


  1. Introducing Indian Society
  2. Social Structure
  3. Social Changes in India


  1. Introducing Indian Society:

(i) Perspectives on the study of Indian society:

  1. Indology (GS. Ghurye).
  2. Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas).
  3. Marxist sociology (A R Desai).

(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :

  1. Social background of Indian nationalism.
  2. Modernization of Indian tradition.
  3. Protests and movements during the colonial period.
  4. Social reforms.
  1. Social Structure:

(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:

  1. The idea of Indian village and village studies.
  2. Agrarian social structure – evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.

(ii) Caste System:

  1. Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
  2. Features of caste system.
  3. Untouchability – forms and perspectives.

(iii) Tribal communities in India:

  1. Definitional problems.
  2. Geographical spread.
  3. Colonial policies and tribes.
  4. Issues of integration and autonomy.

(iv) Social Classes in India:

  1. Agrarian class structure.
  2. Industrial class structure.
  3. Middle classes in India.

(v) Systems of Kinship in India:

  1. Lineage and descent in India.
  2. Types of kinship systems.
  3. Family and marriage in India.
  4. Household dimensions of the family.

(vi) Religion and Society:

  1. Religious communities in India.
  2. Problems of religious minorities.
  3. Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour

1.Social Changes in India:

(i) Visions of Social Change in India:

  1. Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
  2. Constitution, law and social change.
  3. Education and social change.

(ii) Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:

  1. Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
  2. Green revolution and social change.
  3. Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture .
  4. Problems of rural labour, bondage,migration.

(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:

  1. Evolution of modern industry in India.
  2. Growth of urban settlements in India.
  3. Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
  4. Informal sector, child labour.
  5. Slums and deprivation in urban areas.

(iv) Politics and Society:

  1. Nation, democracy and citizenship.
  2. Political parties, pressure groups , social and political elite.
  3. Regionalism and decentralization of power.
  4. Secularization

(v) Social Movements in Modern India:

  1. Peasants and farmers movements.
  2. Women’s movement.
  3. Backward classes & Dalit movement.
  4. Environmental movements.
  5. Ethnicity and Identity movements.

(vi) Population Dynamics:

  1. Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
  2. Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
  3. Population policy and family planning.
  4. Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.

(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation:

  1. Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
  2. Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
  3. Violence against women.
  4. Caste conflicts.
  5. Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
  6. Illiteracy and disparities in education.

Sociology optional syllabus for upsc pdf

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